Artley. Some Documents Were Shredded. Image. Association for Diplomatic Studies and Training. http://adst.org/2015/04/the-iran-contra-scandal/.
This political cartoon depicts Oliver North shredding the Constitution. I used it because it not only illustrates the extent to which some executive branch officials went to hide their illegal actions, but more so because it represents the significance of how all their wrongdoings essentially undermines the Constitution.
This is a photograph of Ayatollah Khomeini, who was the leader of Iran following the Islamic Revolution. I used this in my background section because Ayatollah Khomeini played a large role in Iran’s history in the years before and during the Iran-Contra affair.
Berger, Markus. Monimbo. Photograph. Navigation and Ships. http://www.navymar.com/MonimboSuiza.htm.
This image shows the Monimbo, a ship which delivered weapons to Nicaragua. Oliver North attempted to gain intelligence on it to prevent this transaction from occurring. The Monimbo is important because it helped me to better understand the extent to which the Enterprise would act to achieve its political goals. I find it shocking that the Enterprise attempted to have this large merchant ship and/or its contents captured or destroyed. I used this image in the “Intelligence Support” section of my website.
Brands, Hal. Oliver North Being Sworn In, July 1987. Photograph. The Wall Street Journal. October 3, 2014. http://www.wsj.com/articles/book-review-iran-contra-by-malcolm-byrne-1412364037.
This is a photograph of Oliver North being sworn into the Congressional hearings by Senator Inouye. I used it in my website to show that he performed one of the most central roles in the Iran contra affair and was a prominent figure at the hearings. This image was inserted in the “Outcome” section.
Brulin, Rémi. Save the Contras. Photograph. Foreign Policy Journal. September 25, 2013. http://www.foreignpolicyjournal.com/2013/09/25/from-reagan-to-obama-secrecy-and-covert-operations-in-the- fight-against-terrorism/.
This is an image of an advertisement seeking private funds to support the Contras in Nicaragua. It gave me a better understanding of how propaganda was used to depict the Contras as heroes and freedom fighters. It helped me to realize how the Reagan Administration’s motivations were to protect democracy by supporting the Contras and stopping the spread of communist influence.
Daigle, Katherine. The (Continuing) Islamic Revolution of 1979. Photograph. Politichicks. http://politichicks.com/2015/09/the-continuing-islamic-revolution-of-1979/.
This photograph captures the Islamic Revolution and a group holding a picture of Ayatollah Khomeini, who took power after the shah was overthrown. I used this as a header image in the background section of my website to show he was the leader during the Iran-Contra affair and to show the widespread support throughout Iran for this anti-U.S. leader.
Dickey, Christopher. Contras Posing for the Camera near Nicaraguan Border, 1983. Photograph. Blogspot. April 21, 2012. http://americanbyways.blogspot.com/2012/04/central-america-in-early-19980s.html.
This image depicts a group of Contras brandishing their weapons. I used it in the “Military Support” section of my website to emphasis that the funding was being used for military or lethal support in violation of the Boland Amendment.
Herblock. Arms Payoff for Hostage Release. Image. Library of Congress. http://www.loc.gov/exhibits/herblocks- history/invasion.html.
This political cartoon displays President Reagan on television assuring the public that no arms for hostage deals took place while secretly engaging in them with Iran. I used it in “Outcome” to demonstrate how the Iran-Contra affair increased public mistrust of government and damaged President Reagan’s credibility.
Hunt, Albert. Congress Took Impeachment Seriously with Watergate. Photograph. The Morning Call. July 21, 2014. http://articles.mcall.com/2014-07-21/opinion/mc-impeach-president-hunt-web-20140721_1_impeachment- deliberations-hearings.
I used this photograph in the background section of my website because it demonstrates the decline in public trust of the U.S. government following the Watergate Scandal under Nixon. It also helped me to see the public impact of the growing concern over executive branch abuse of power during that time.
This photograph depicts Iranians using a U.S. TOW missile in the Iran-Iraq war. It was difficult to find, as the photo was posted on an obscure Iranian blog. I used this, however, as my header under the “Iranian Arms for Hostages” section and the image was important to me because it confirms how Iran obtained U.S.-made TOW missiles during the Iran-Iraq War, which violated the U.S.’ AECA and Operation Staunch.
MIGUEL VINAS/AFP/Getty Images. A Group of Cuban Counter-Revolutionaries, Members of Assault Brigade 2506, after Their Capture in the Bay of Pigs, Cuba. Photograph. New York Daily News. December 14, 2014. http://www.nydailynews.com/news/world/jfk-moscow-hands-cuba-article-1.2048695.
This photograph shows American-trained Cubans being held hostage by Castro’s troops after the Bay of Pigs fiasco. This was used in the “Background” section of my website to show how the Bay of Pigs invasion had disastrously failed. It also increased my understanding of the public’s concern over executive mistakes and its mistrust of government.
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. Photograph. Biography. http://www.biography.com/people/mohammad-reza-pahlavi- 9431856.\
This is a photograph of Iranian Shah Mohammad Pahlavi, who rose to power after Mohammed Mossadegh was deposed. I used this in the “Background” section of my website. It deepened my understanding of why the public didn’t want to sell arms to a country where a pro-U.S. leader was overthrown for an anti-U.S. one. It also provided further insight into why President Reagan felt concerned over a decrease in U.S. influence.
Mohammed Mossadegh. Photograph. Notable Names Database. http://www.nndb.com/people/678/000120318/.
This is a photograph of the democratically-elected Iranian leader Mohammed Mossadegh who was overthrown by western nations. I used his image in the “Background” section of my website as this event was huge in creating tensions between Iran and the U.S. before the Iran-Contra affair. After he was overthrown, the pro-U.S. shah was empowered.
Myre, Greg. Nicaragua's Contra Rebels in 1990. Photograph. National Public Radio. September 20, 2014. http://www.npr.org/sections/parallels/2014/09/20/349549267/when-the-u-s-backs-rebels-it-doesnt-often-go-as- planned.
This photograph features U.S. training of Nicaraguan Contra rebels. I used this under the “Military Support” area of my website. It shows that the U.S. was providing covert military support through training which was in violation of the Boland Amendment.
National Security Advisor John Poindexter. Photograph. United States History. http://www.u-s-history.com/pages/ h1889.html.
This is a photograph of National Security Advisor John Poindexter who replaced McFarlane nearing the end of the Iran- Contra affairs. I included him in the “Iran-Contra Exchange” section because Poindexter was one of the primary figures in the scandal.
Nicaraguan Contras. Photograph. Latin American Studies. http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/contras.htm.
This photograph shows armed counterrevolutionaries in Nicaragua which were supported by the U.S. executive branch during the Iran-Contra affairs. I used this in the “Background” section of my website to accompany my explanation of the origin of the Contras.
O'Reilly, Andrew. Nicaragua Contras. Photograph. Fox News Latino. October 16, 2014. http://latino.foxnews.com/latino/news/2014/10/16/cia-report-says-lessons-to-be-learned-from-nicaragua-and-cuba- when-dealing-with/.
This photograph shows the Contras who were supported by executive officials throughout the Iran Contra affairs. I used this picture in my “Supporting the Contras” section because it shows how the U.S. backed the Contras militarily which violates the Boland Amendment.
Parry, Robert. Robert McFarlane, Ronald Reagan's Third National Security Advisor. Photograph. Centre for Research on Globalization. February 15, 2015. http://www.globalresearch.ca/israel-and-the-iran-contra-scandal-how- neocons-messed-up-the-mideast/5323076.
This is a photograph of Robert McFarlane, National Security Advisor to President Reagan, who supervised Oliver North during the beginning of the Iran-Contra affairs. I used this under the “Iran-Contra Exchange” section because McFarlane was a main figure during the affair.
President Reagan Meets with Contra Leaders in the Oval Office. Photograph. National Security Archives. http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB210/.
This photograph captures President Reagan meeting with Contra leaders with North off to the side. I used this in the “Introduction” section of my website.
Protesting Vietnam. Photograph. Digital Media Lab, University of Virginia. http://hitchcock.itc.virginia.edu/ViewingAmerica/roundtables/roundtable8/outline1.html.
This photograph demonstrates the opposition to the Vietnam conflict by the American public. I used this in the “Background” section in order to depict how Americans wanted to avoid any unnecessary foreign conflicts.
Ronald Reagan with Adolfo Calero. Photograph. Learn NC. http://www.learnnc.org/lp/editions/nchist-recent/6187.
This photograph depicts Oliver North and President Reagan meeting with Contra representative Adolfo Calero. I used this under the “Exploring Alternatives” section of my website because the Enterprise had to explore alternatives to circumvent Congressional laws in order to support the Contras through Adolfo Calero. Throughout the duration of the Iran-Contra affair, the Enterprise went from breaking the spirit of the law to intentionally breaking the law itself.
Sandinista Troops Deployed from a Soviet Helicopter in 1989. Photograph. Latin American Studies. http://www.latinamericanstudies.org/sandinistas.htm.
This photograph shows Sandinista troops who suppressed the Nicaraguan counterrevolutionaries following the collapse of the Sandino government. I used this as a header image in the background section to show Sandinistas being deployed from a Soviet helicopter during Nicaragua’s ongoing civil war. America did not want to be involved in this long and bloody civil war following the bloodshed in Vietnam.
Scott, Peter Dale. Oliver North at the Iran-Contra Hearings. Photograph. Ratical.org. November 29, 2010. http://www.ratical.org/ratville/JFK/COGplanning.html.
This is a photograph of Marine Colonel Oliver North, who managed the Enterprise during the Iran-Contra affairs. I used this in the “Iran-Contra Exchange” section of my website because Oliver North primarily directed the Iran-Contra affair.
Stockwell, Norman. Iran Contra: The Exposure of Eugene Hasenfus. Photograph. The Tico Times News. October 6, 2014. http://www.ticotimes.net/2014/10/06/the-exposure-of-eugene-hasenfus.
This is a photograph of Eugene Hasenfus, the lone survivor of a failed Contra support mission. He was captured and told his captors of CIA actions in Nicaragua. I used this in the “Outcome” section, as his capture was crucial to the exposition of the scandal.
U.S. Hostage Being Paraded in Front of the Public. Photograph. U.S. Department of State. https://history.state.gov/departmenthistory/short-history/iraniancrises.
This photograph depicts an American victim of the Iranian Hostage Crisis. I used this under the “Background” section, as the Iranian Hostage Crisis was a major factor in tensions between the U.S. and Iran in the years prior to the Iran- Contra affair.
Arms Export Control Act, 22 U.S.C. § 2778 (1976).
The Arms Export Control Act is a federal law which prohibited many of the executive actions during the Iran-Contra affair. I used this when explaining how it was a restrictive law for the Reagan Administration under “Encountering Restraints” because it prevented the Enterprise from exporting arms to third countries like Iran who supported terrorism.
Foreign Assistance Act of 1974, 22 U.S.C. § 2151 (1974).
This statute, the Hughes-Ryan Amendment, requires that Presidential Findings be written, signed, and reported to Congress for covert operations to occur. I used this under “Encountering Restraints” because it prevented the Reagan Administration from independently conducting covert operations without reporting it.
This is the Intelligence Oversight Act which increased Congressional oversight of the executive branch. I included it to show that Congress required the President to report covert activities to the Congressional Intelligence Committee in advance. This law would serve as an obstacle for members of the Reagan Administration so I used this under “Encountering Restraints.”
National Security Council, The 1984 Boland Amendment, Doc. (1985).
This is the 1984 Boland Amendment, which prohibited intelligence agencies from supporting the Contras. I inserted this document under the “Encountering Restraints” section because it was a perfect example of how Congress tried to prevent the executive branch from getting the U.S. militarily involved in any foreign conflicts.
Olmstead v. United States, 277 U.S. (1928).
This Supreme Court case provided an amazing quote by Justice Brandeis, claiming that the U.S. government should always follow the law to serve as an example for its citizens.
Newspaper Articles (Periodicals)
The Glasgow Herald (Glasgow, Scotland). "North's Fund-raising Led to Lavish Spending by Group of Consultants." November 19, 1987, City edition.
This newspaper article reports unethical fundraising efforts by Carl Channell through solicitation of wealthy conservatives. I used it under the “Funding for Support” section.
McManus, Doyle. "North's 'Shredding Party' Reportedly Missed a Memo." Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles), May 12, 1987. http://articles.latimes.com/1987-05-12/news/mn-7693_1_mcfarlane.
This newspaper article describes how North's shredding party had overlooked one of the key pieces of evidence of the Iran Contra affairs - the Diversion Memo, detailing the diversion of Iranian arms sale profits to the Contras. I used this newspaper article to get information on how the Enterprise’s cover-up attempts failed.
Morgan, Dan, and Charles R. Babcock. "US: Secret Task Led to Web of Firms; Virginian Ran Covert Missions." The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.), March 27, 1987.
This newspaper article discusses the role of Richard Gadd in arranging supply airdrops to the Contras. This newspaper article was useful when researching Richard Gadd and how the Enterprise implemented military support and airdrops.
Osterlund, Peter. "Coping with Constitutional Ambiguity. The US Constitution's Division of Foreign Policy Responsibility between President and Congress Created a Delicate Balance That Has Been Severely Tested by the Iran-Contra Affair. Yet Politicians and Historians Tend to Agree That the System Is Wise and Workable." The Christian Science Monitor (Washington), August 12, 1987. Accessed November 11, 2015. http://www.csmonitor.com/1987/0812/acheck.html.
This article discusses the ongoing power struggle between Congress and the executive branch in addition to the ambiguity of restrictive laws. I read this article while researching if the ambiguity of presidential and congressional responsibilities related to foreign policy outlined by the Constitution played a role in the Iran-Contra affair.
Ross, Michael. "New Restrictions on Covert Action Passed by Congress : Legislation: The Measure Expands Current Oversight Laws to Apply to Any Government Agency and Not Just the CIA." Los Angeles Times (Los Angeles, CA), August 1, 1991. http://articles.latimes.com/1991-08-01/news/mn-278_1_covert-action.
I read this source while researching the legacy of the Iran-Contra affair. This article proved how Congresspassed laws to improve Congressional oversight following the aftermath of the Iran-Contra affair.
Scheffer, David J. "Iran-Contra: A Legacy in New Laws." The Chicago Tribune(Chicago, IL), December 12, 1989. http://articles.chicagotribune.com/1989-12-12/news/8903170502_1_iran-contra-terrorist-country-investigations. This source demonstrated how there were attempts to improve the law as a result of the Iran-Contra affair. I used this as a reference source.
Goldwater, Barry. Barry Goldwater to William J. Casey, "Expression of Outrage over Not Being Briefed on CIA Mining of Nicaraguan Harbors," April 9, 1984.
This important document captures the Congressional response to the mining of Nicaraguan harbors as approved by President Reagan and CIA Director William Casey. I used this under the “Boland Amendments” section of my website to show Congressional outrage over the covert actions of the CIA in Nicaragua. Iran-Contra Affairs (1987).
The opening statement of these Congressional hearings, which I used in my website, summarizes the danger of when our system of checks and balances are broken. It included many great quotes.
National Security Council, Covert Action Finding Regarding Iran, Doc. (1986).
This is the Finding which the President signed allowing a more direct way of selling and transferring arms to Iran, but it was never reported to Congress as required by the Hughes-Ryan amendment.
National Security Council, Operation Staunch, Exec. Doc. (1987).
This is the memorandum on strengthening Operation Staunch which sought to prevent negotiations with terrorists and bring the Iran-Iraq war to a close. I used this under the “Operation Staunch” section of my website to show that the U.S. government policy was to prevent arm sales to Iran. Also, this document mentions the negative impact the Iran-Contra affair had on Operation Staunch.
National Security Council, Release of American Hostages in Beirut, Exec. Doc. (1985).
This is the "diversion memo," that was extremely important in the exposition of the scandal and was discovered by Attorney General Meese's investigation team. It detailed the covert diversion of Iranian arms deal profits to the Contras. I used this under “Iranian Arms for Hostages,” because the diversion memo was crucial for the arms-for-hostages exchange and also obtaining funds for Contra support.
Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair: With the Minority Views. Abridged ed. New York: Times Books, 1988.
This report provides comprehensive information on the actions and activities involved in the Iran-Contra affairs. I used it primarily as a reference source.
White House, Finding Pursuant to Section 662 of the Foreign Assistance Act of 1961 as Amended, concerning Operations Undertaken by the Central Intelligence Agency in Foreign Countries, Other than Those Intended Solely for the Purpose of Intelligence Collection, Exec. Doc. (1986).
This presidential finding authorized the CIA to train, organize, and provide intelligence and communications support to the Contras. It increased the range of what the CIA was authorized to do to further undermine the Sandinista government. I used it in my website under the “Exploring Alternatives” section to demonstrate how President Reagan signed broad presidential findings to authorize non-lethal Contra support but used lethal support as well.
White House, Presidential Finding on Covert Operations in Nicaragua, Exec. Doc. (1981).
This document is one of the Findings authorizing CIA covert operations in Central America. I used it under the “Exploring Alternatives” section. This finding was extremely broad and would initially authorize CIA lethal support before the Boland Amendments were created.
White House, Presidential Finding on Covert Operations in Nicaragua, Exec. Doc. (1983).
This document replaces the December 1, 1981 finding to broaden the ability of the CIA to undermine the Nicaraguan Sandinista government while still using ambiguous language. I used this in my “Exploring Alternatives” section.
"Iran-Contra Investigation Day 9." Video file, 4:33:05. C-Span. http://www.c-span.org/video/?8838-1/irancontra- investigation-day-9. This is a video from the ninth day of the Congressional Hearings of the Iran-Contra affairs, when Robert Owens is questioned. I used a picture from this film under “Funding for Support,” as Robert Owens was important in the diversion of Congressional funds from humanitarian aid to lethal Contra military support.
This quote by Ronald Reagan summarizes his view on individual accountability for breaking the law. I found this while searching for important quotes to use in my website.
Secondary Sources Books (Nonperiodicals)
Briker, Jason. “Iran-Contra Scandal.” Issues & Controversies in American History. Infobase Learning, 27 June 2007. Web. 30 Dec. 2015. <http://icah.infobaselearning.com/icahfullarticle.aspx?ID=107340>.
This comprehensive article gives detailed information on all aspects of the Iran-Contra affairs and is a useful reference source.
Byrne, Malcolm. Iran-Contra: Reagan's Scandal and the Unchecked Abuse of Presidential Power. Lawrence, KS: University Press of Kansas, 2014.
This amazing book provided copious information on the Iran-Contra affairs and was a source that I frequently referred to for specific details on events. Draper, Theodore. A Very Thin Line: The Iran-Contra Affairs. New York: Hill and Wang, 1991.
This book provided invaluable information on the Iran-Contra affairs, ranging from the origins of Congressional laws to the outcome and hearings from the scandal. Theodore Draper also discusses the dangers of executive abuse of power and the legacy of the affairs. I used this not only to gain an understanding of the Iran-Contra affairs but often referred to it while writing my essay and comparing conflicting information.
“Iran-Contra Affair.” Issues & Controversies in American History. Infobase Learning, Web. 30 Dec. 2015. <http://icah.infobaselearning.com/icahencyarticle.aspx?ID=11428>.
This helpful and concise database article provides an overview of the Iran-Contra affairs. I used this as a reference source. Walsh, Lawrence E. Iran-Contra: The Final Report. New York: Times, 1994.
This is the official report released by Lawrence Walsh, appointed Independent Counsel. It was used as a reference source in my project, providing specific details on the entire scandal.
Activity Based Intelligence and National Security. Image. Hexagon's Global Network News. http://hxgnnews.com/activity-based-intelligence-national-security/.
Presidential Findings must deem specific covert operations as important to national security. I used this under the “Hughes-Ryan Amendment & Intelligence Oversight Act” section as my header image to represent how presidential findings relate to national security.
Bradford, Charles. Presidential Finding. Image. Slide Player. http://slideplayer.com/slide/273561/.
This slide discusses the importance and purpose of presidential findings. I found this while researching presidential findings.
Carl "Spitz" Channell, Contra Fund-raiser. Image. Authentic History. http://www.authentichistory.com/1974-1992/3- reagan/5-irancontra/cards/Iran-Contra_Cards.html.
This image depicts Carl Channell, a central figure in the raising of private funds for the Contras. I used this under the “Funding for Support” section of my website because Channell was a prominent figure in obtaining third-party funds for Contra support.
Chan, Casey. The Complicated Truth behind the Empire of the United States of America. Image. Sploid. http://sploid.gizmodo.com/the-complicated-truth-behind-the-empire-of-the-united-s-1600077395.
This is an image of the Statue of Liberty in front of the American flag. This image was used in the Legacy section because I felt the greatest impact of the Iran-Contra affair was on America and its Constitution. The Cold War. Image. The Santa Fe Council on International Relations. https://www.sfcir.org/education/.
This image shows the political alignments of major countries during Reagan's presidency. I used this under the “Exploring Alternatives” section of my website to demonstrate how communism’s influence was spreading which increased Reagan’s concern about the power struggle between democracy and communism. This would ultimately compel him to support the anti-communist Contras.
This is an image of the Constitution of the United States which was undermined as a result of the Iran-Contra affairs. I used this in the Conclusion section of my website. Flag of Iran. Image. Flagpedia. http://flagpedia.net/iran.
This is an image of the Iranian flag. I used it in the Home page of my site.
Flag of Nicaragua. Image. Flagpedia. http://flagpedia.net/nicaragua.
This is an image of the Nicaraguan flag. I used it in the Home page of my site.
Intelligence Agencies. Image. The World Organization for Research Development and Education. http://www.worde.org/programs/1013-2/office-of-the-director-of-national-intelligence-heritage-council/.
This image shows the different U.S. intelligence agencies of government. This was used under the “Exploring Alternatives” section of my website to show what agencies of the government were considered intelligence agencies and affected by the Boland Amendment, such as the CIA.
Iran Contra 1985-1987. Image. Illuminati Rex. http://www.illuminatirex.com/top-ten-government-conspiracies/.
This diagram depicts the exchange which occurred during the Iran Contra affairs. I used this under the “Iran-Contra Exchange” tab of my website to show how arms for hostages and profit were exchanged throughout the affair. The profit would then be used to support the Contras.
President Reagan Addressing Joint Session of Congress on Program for Economic Recovery. Photograph. Ronald Reagan Presidential Library and Museum. http://www.reagan.utexas.edu/archives/photographs/speeches.html.
This is a photo of President Reagan speaking to Congress. I used this under the “Encountering Restraints” tab of my website.
Richard Gadd and Robert Dutton, Career Air Force Officers. Image. Authentic History. http://www.authentichistory.com/1974-1992/3-reagan/5-irancontra/cards/Iran-Contra_Cards.html.
This image depicts Richard Gadd who arranged the airdrop of supplies to the Contras. I used this under the “Military Support” section of my website, as Richard Gadd was a prominent figure in the airdrop of supplies. Sanctions on Iran. Image. Inside the Eye - Live! January 17, 2016. http://insidetheeyelive.com/the-iranian-nuclear-deal- and-the-oregon-standoff-itel-radio-1-16-16/.
This is a simple image representing economic sanctions on Iran. I used this in the “Operation Staunch” tab to represent how the U.S. government wanted to prevent weapons from flowing to Iran or Iraq during their war.
Senator Inouye Portait. Photograph. U.S. National Library of Medicine. December 21, 2012. https://www.nlm.nih.gov/news/sen_daniel_inouye.html.
This is a photo of Senator Inouye who opened the Congressional hearings on the Iran-Contra affairs. I used this next to a quote I inserted in the Outcome section.
Byrne, Malcolm. Interview by Brian M. Holt. National Security Archive, Washington D.C. March 11, 2016.
This interview with Malcolm Byrne, Deputy Director of the National Security Archive at George Washington University, D.C., was used to underscore my view on the legacy and context of the Iran-Contra affairs.
Newspaper Articles (Periodicals)
Bernstein, Adam. "Scholar, Historian Theodore Draper." The Washington Post (Washington, D.C., U.S.A.), February 23, 2006. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/02/22/AR2006022202411.html.
This article provides a powerful quote from Theodore Draper on the legacy of the Iran-Contra affair. I used it in my website under the Legacy section.
Koppel, Ted. "30 Years after the Iran Hostage Crisis, We're Still Fighting Reagan's War." Washington Post. The Washington Post, 21 Jan. 2011. Web. 15 May 2016. <http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp- dyn/content/article/2011/01/21/AR2011012102914.html>.
This article provides a good analysis of the Iran-Contra affair’s legacy and how it affects us today. I used a quote from this article under my Legacy section to demonstrate that when the Reagan Administration broke laws by giving arms to Iranian officials to free hostages, it was teaching Middle Eastern terrorists that terrorism and kidnapping are powerful weapons against the U.S. Scheiner, Eric. "Reagan Flashback: 'Checks and Balances, Limited Government -The Genius of Our Constitutional System'" CNS News. CNSNews.com, 21 Nov. 2014. Web. 16 May 2016. <http://www.cnsnews.com/mrctv-blog/eric- scheiner/reagan-flashback-checks-and-balances-limited-government-genius-our>.
This article discusses how President Reagan commented on how checks and balances are the “genius” of our constitutional democracy at the 200th anniversary of the signing of the Constitution. I used a quote from this in the Conclusion section of my website.
Will, George F. "Will the Supreme Court Strike Back at Obama’s Overreach?" The Washington Post(Washington D.C.), January 22, 2016. https://www.washingtonpost.com/opinions/will-the-supreme-court-strike-back-at- obamas-overreach/2016/01/22/1af0b1b0-c077-11e5-83d4-42e3bceea902_story.html.
This newspaper article was helpful when researching recent examples of how presidential administrations continue to attempt to bypass congressional restrictions. I used a quote from this in the "Legacy" section of my website.
Chimene-Weiss, Sara, Sol Eppel, Jeremy Feigenbaum, Seth Motel, and Ingrid Pangandoyon. "The Counterrevolutionaries (The Contras)." Understanding the Iran Contra Affairs. https://www.brown.edu/ Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/n-contrasus.php.
This webpage on the US-Contra interactions throughout the 1980s summarized each way that the Reagan Administration covertly supported the Contras in the face of Congressional and public disapproval. I used this website as a reference source.
———. "Documents." Understanding the Iran Contra Affairs. http://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/documents.php.
On my visit to the National Security Archive, this list of documents assisted me in identifying and obtaining the most important documents relating to the Iran-Contra affairs.
———. "Iran - The Expansion and the End." Understanding the Iran Contra Affairs. http://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/i-theexpansion.php.
This page describes the illegal transfer of arms to Iran nearing the end of the scandal. I used this page as a reference source when writing about the Iranian Arms for Hostage deals and the outcome of the affair.
———. "Nicaragua Timeline." Understanding the Iran Contra Affairs. https://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/timeline-nicaragua.php.
This timeline provided background information and a summary of events in Nicaragua relating to the Iran-Contra affairs. It was extremely useful when writing on the background and support given to the Contras during the affair.
———. "The 1992 Pardons." Understanding the Iran Contra Affairs. http://www.brown.edu/Research/ Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/thepardons.php.
This webpage provides information on President Bush's 1992 pardons of central figures in the Iran-Contra affair. The pardons named helped me to understand how the majority of the participants of the Iran-Contra scandal went unpunished.
———. "Oliver North." Understanding the Iran Contra Affairs. http://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/profile-north.php.
This webpage briefly describes the role of Oliver North in the Iran-Contra affairs and how he illegally attempted to lie to Congress and destroy essential evidence on the executive branch's actions. This page was useful when writing on the outcome of the Iran-Contra affair.
———. "Ronald Reagan." Understanding the Iran Contra Affairs. http://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/profile-reagan.php.
This page discusses President Reagan's role in the Iran-Contra affairs in addition to some of the laws broken such as the Arms Exports Control Act. It was helpful when researching. ———. "Summary of Prosecutions." Understanding the Iran Contra Affairs. http://www.brown.edu/Research/Understanding_the_Iran_Contra_Affair/prosecutions.php.
This webpage offers an extremely helpful chart which organizes and displays the prosecutions of members who participated in the scandal. This was a good reference source when researching the prosecutions of the Iran-Contra affair.
Haines, Gerald K. "The Pike Committee Investigations and the CIA." Central Intelligence Agency. Last modified April 4, 2007. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/ winter98_99/art07.html.
This webpage describes the investigations of the Pike and Church Committees into the intelligencecommunity and how they revealed illegal activities within certain agencies such as the CIA. This was helpful when researching the increase of public mistrust of government in the years prior to the Iran-Contra affair.
"Iran-Contra Affair." West's Encyclopedia of American Law. 2005. Encyclopedia.com. (January 23, 2016). http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3437702403.html.
This page describes many of the laws violated in the Iran-Contra affairs. I used this in the “Outcome” section to provide more information about how multiple laws were broken. National Security Archive. "Iran Contra at 25: Reagan and Bush 'Criminal Liability' Evaluations." The National Security Archive. Last modified November 25, 2011. http://nsarchive.gwu.edu/NSAEBB/NSAEBB365/.
This webpage article summarizes how President Reagan was informed about all of the arms transfers to the Contras and Iran throughout the scandal with the exception of the diversion of funds from Iranian arms sales to the Contras. This was helpful when researching Reagan’s knowledge of the operations of the scandal.
"The Oath of Office." Smithsonian National Museum of American History. http://americanhistory.si.edu/presidency/ 1b2.html.
The Oath of Office was used to prove that when a president pledges "to preserve, protect, and defend the Constitution," that he is also pledging to preserve our timeless system of checks and balances.
Rivkin Jr., David B. "Were Any Laws Broken in the Iran-Contra Affair?" World and I School. http://www.worldandischool.com/public/1987/november/school-resource13134.asp.
This essay gives a different perspective on the Iran-Contra affairs, arguing that the Reagan Administration did not circumvent any laws. This helped me to challenge my view on the Iran-Contra affair.
Saad, Lydia, Frank Newport, and Jeffrey M. Jones. "Ronald Reagan From the People's Perspective: A Gallup Poll Review." Gallup.com. Gallup, 7 June 2004. Web. 15 May 2016. <http://www.gallup.com/poll/11887/ronald-reagan- from-peoples-perspective-gallup-poll-review.aspx>.
This webpage provides statistical information about how President Reagan’s reputation was temporarily hurt from the Iran-Contra affair. I used a quote from this site in my Conclusion section.
Van Wagenen, James S. "A Review of Congressional Oversight." Central Intelligence Agency. https://www.cia.gov/library/center-for-the-study-of-intelligence/csi-publications/csi-studies/studies/97unclass/ wagenen.html.
This webpage was extremely useful when researching Congressional oversight and specific laws which hindered the Reagan Administration in carrying out their political goals. It provided information on the Hughes-Ryan amendment and other mandates. Vile, John R. "Iran-Contra Scandal." ABC-CLIO eBook Collection. Accessed October 26, 2015. http://americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/252760?terms=iran+contra. This brief database article provided a concise yet accurate overview of the Iran-Contra affairs. It was a helpful reference source.
WGBH Educational Foundation. "The Iranian Hostage Crisis." Public Broadcasting Service. Accessed September 12, 2015. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/carter-hostage-crisis/.
This website article provided important information on the Iranian Hostage Crisis and the history of US-Iranian relations. It played an essential role in the establishment of Congressional laws which constrained the Reagan Administration. It was a helpful reference source when making my site.
Woolley, John. "The Iran Contra Report." The American Presidency Project. http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/PS157/ assignment%20files%20public/congressional%20report%20key%20sections.htm.
This website provided an in-depth summary of the exchanges which occurred during the Iran-Contra affairs, and also describes the laws broken. It also mentioned the Congressional hearings which took place following the scandal. This webpage also provided me with several very relevant quotes.
"Arms for Hostages Deal Iran-Contra Deal." Video file, 0:57. Youtube. Posted by Christopher Adams, April 19, 2012. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogubtwIJDxQ.
This brief video clip summarizes the Iranian arms deals that took place in exchange for hostages and profits to support the Contras. I used this in the “Iranian Arms for Hostage” section.
"Coverup: 'Behind the Iran-Contra Affair.'" Video file, 1:12:06. Youtube. Posted by Ushadrons, October 3, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MIVbFhVYB64.
This is a documentary directed by David Kasper and Barbara Trent in 1988, providing great reference information on the Iran-Contra affairs. I used this video in the “Exploring Alternatives” section of my website.